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Encouraging Landscape Water-Conservation Behaviors: Applying Audience Segmentation to Water Conservation Activities in the Landscape?Defining Segments of the Florida Homeowner Audience and Implications for Extension Programming

Theresa Ferrari, left, extension youth development specialist in the Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, and Steve Jacob review findings form the citizen survey.

This is the second publication in a series focusing on encouraging water conservation among Florida residents who use irrigation in their home landscapes. This six-page fact sheet examines one approach to segmenting Florida residents who use irrigation in the home landscape. It also describes how segmentation can be used to encourage water conservation practices. Written by Laura A. Warner, Emmett Martin, Alexa J. Lamm, Joy N. Rumble, and Esen Momol and published by the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication.

General Public and Local Officials Attitudes and Perceptions of Agricultural Water Use in Florida

Lemon trees with micro irrigation system.  Photo Credits:  UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones

The use of water has become increasingly contentious because an increased population is sharing a decreasing amount of water. Water remains Florida’s most plentiful natural resource but is at risk as the agriculture industry and Floridians demand more water for a variety of uses. This four-page fact sheet discusses the media’s influence on perceptions of agricultural water use, the measurement of attitudes and perception towards agricultural water use, and ways to educate the general public and local officials on this issue. Written by Courtney T. Owens, Alexa J. Lamm, and Ricky W. Telg, and published by the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication.

Facts about Wildlife Diseases: Hemorrhagic Fever in White-Tailed Deer


The viruses that cause hemorrhagic disease (HD) in deer do not cause illness in people, but they are a growing problem. HD is the most important viral disease of white-tailed deer in the United States. Large outbreaks have occurred in the northern Midwest and western United States. In Florida outbreaks are fewer and less severe in populations of wild white-tailed deer than are outbreaks among wild deer in other areas of the United States, but farm-raised deer in the state are proving vulnerable to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus: one of the viruses that cause HD. This 6-page fact sheet written by Katherine A. Sayler, Charlotte Dow, and Samantha M. Wisely and published by the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation describes best management techniques for outbreaks of HD in farm-raised deer. It includes strategies for best supportive care for sick animals, diagnostics, and integrated pest management to control biting midges that spread the viruses that cause HD, because the best way to manage HD is to prevent it.

History and Status of Introduced Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Silver Springs State Park, Florida

rhesus macaque monkey child

Local folklore suggests that the rhesus macaque monkeys living in what is today Silver Springs State Park were released while the 1939 movie Tarzan "Finds a Son" was filmed at the site, but no rhesus macaques appear in that movie, and the macaques had been living in Silver Springs for a considerable time before Tarzan found his son there. In fact, today’s thriving population of macaques in Silver Springs State Park descended from monkeys intentionally released earlier in the 1930s in an effort to increase tourism to the area.

Silver Springs became a tourist attraction in the 1870s and has had glass-bottom boat tours ever since. In the 1930s the manager of the glass bottom boat operation, Colonel Tooey, released approximately six rhesus macaques to attract tourists and increase revenue for the boat tours. Not knowing rhesus macaques are proficient swimmers, Colonel Tooey released his monkeys on an island in the Silver River from whence they quickly swam to the surrounding forests, where they made themselves at home and set up a growing colony. What happened next? Learn the story (so far!) of the monkeys and the park in this 4-page fact sheet written by C. J. Anderson, S. A. Johnson, M. E. Hostetler, and M. G. Summers and published by the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation.

Landowner Cost-Share Incentives and Payments for Ecosystem Services: A Comparison of Key Program Features

Florida forests

Landowners who conduct land management activities that protect environmental benefits may be eligible for several types of financial assistance from the government, but not all incentive strategies are the same. This 4-page fact sheet written by Melissa M. Kreye, Elizabeth Pienaar, and Raoul K. Boughton and published by the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation compares traditional cost-share programs offered to landowners through federal agencies and a new type of market-based incentive program called payments for ecosystem services (PES). The information inside can help private landowners understand the advantages and limitations of both approaches and guide decision-makers in designing effective future conservation incentive programs.

Using the Ecosystem Services Approach to Advance Conservation Efforts on Private Lands


Decision-makers in Florida have shown increased interest in using the Ecosystem Services (ES) approach to reward ecosystem conservation efforts on private lands. For example, payments for ecosystem services (PES) strategies have been effective in motivating landowners to conserve ecosystems on their land. Some landowners may find a better understanding of the ES approach to be useful when deciding to participate in a PES program. This 5-page fact sheet written by Melissa M. Kreye, Elizabeth Pienaar, Raoul K. Boughton, and Lindsey Wiggins and published by Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation will provide landowners, Extension agents, government and agency leaders, and other stakeholders with a better understanding of how ES are classified, the different ways ES can be valued, how quantifying ES values can help support conservation efforts on private lands in Florida, and a few of the challenges inherent in using the ES approach.

Predaceous Diving Beetles as Pets and the Self-Cleaning Aquarium

diving beetle

Meet a new, attractive, easy-to-keep, local, non-endangered, aquatic pet: the diving beetle! Predaceous diving beetles are aesthetically pleasing yet still rare in US aquariums (though common in countries like Japan), which makes them a fun, new, unusual pet. This 5-page fact sheet written by Craig Bateman and Jiri Hulcr and published by the School of Forest Resources and Conservation provides information about the aquatic beetles, including how to catch and maintain them. Learn how you can befriend these sprightly little insect pals and allow them to bring to your home a mysterious green and quiet world, beautiful silver air bubbles and bronze iridescence, and exciting shows of feeding frenzy. And if you have to part with them, you can safely release the native species into the wild, because they are a part of our Florida natural landscape.

Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing; HLB) Blight and Tristeza Comparison Identification Sheet

PP263-croppedThis document is a two-page illustrated identification sheet for Citrus Greening that includes a comparison chart for Citrus Greening, Blight and Tristeza.

Creciendo Papas en el Jardín de su Hogar en la Florida

Pick any vegetable crop - from lettuce and tomatoes to peppers and potatoes - chances are IFAS research is helping Florida farmers produce a superior product for consumers in todays copetitive marketplace.
The Irish potato is a cool-season crop. A recently grown and harvested potato exhibits different flavor profiles from one that has been in storage or on a grocery shelf for an extended period. For example, in storage, the starches in potatoes convert to sugars, resulting in a less desirable texture and taste. ?New? potato flavor can be achieved in the home garden by following a few growing recommendations. This is ten-page fact sheet is the Spanish language version of HS933 Growing Potatoes in the Florida Home Garden. Written by Christian T. Christensen, Joel Reyes-Cabrera, Lincoln Zotarelli, Wendy J. Dahl, Doug Gergela, Jeffery E. Pack, James M. White, and Chad M. Hutchinson.

Carinata, the Jet Fuel Cover Crop: 2016 Production Recommendations for the Southeastern United States

Genotype screening at NFREC, Quincy, Florida.
Carinata has been grown commercially for several years on the Canadian prairie and more recently in the US northern plains as a summer crop. For the past four years, UF has been conducting research to evaluate various management practices that allow incorporation of carinata into current cropping systems as a winter crop with minimal modification to existing infrastructure in the southeastern US. This 8-page fact sheet is a major revision that discusses carinata characteristics, biology, nutrient management, tillage, variety selection, planting dates, seeding depth, seeding rate, row spacing, weed management, disease management, insect management, harvest management, economics, and crop insurance. Written by Ramdeo Seepaul, Christine M. Bliss, David L. Wright, Jim J. Marois, Ramon G. Leon, Nicholas Dufault, Sheeja George, and Steve M. Olson, and published by the UF Agronomy Department, December 2014. Revised October 2015.

Guide to Olive Tree Nutrition in Florida

A healthy Arbequina olive grove in Volusia County, Florida.A burgeoning olive industry already exists in the southeastern United States, but research and Extension information regarding olive fertilization recommendations in Florida is limited. While there are data and recommendations for olive from the University of California, the University of Georgia (UGA), and other institutions around the world, there are no data from which we can derive Florida-specific recommendations. This 6-page fact sheet uses many of the existing recommendations for mature, high-density, and traditional grove spacing as guidelines until data specific to Florida production are generated. It discusses leaf tissue sampling procedures, leaf tissue sufficiency ranges, nitrogen fertility, phosphorus and potassium fertility, boron, concerns for olive production in Florida, and other resources for olive production in the state. Written by Michael J. Mulvaney, Rao Mylavarapu, Peter C. Andersen, Mack Thetford, and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, and published by the UF Agronomy Department, May 2016.

Pest identification Guide: Florida flower thrips Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan)

florida flower thrips

The Florida flower thrips is a known pest of blueberry but its status in other crops is unclear. Florida flower thrips transmits Tomato spotted wilt virus and possibly other tospoviruses. This species is primarily a flower feeder, so most damage would be expected on the flower or fruit. Learn to identify the Florida flower thrips with this two-page illustrated guide written by Jeffrey D. Cluever and Hugh A. Smith and published by the Department of Entomology and Nematology.

Zika Vector Control for the Urban Pest Management Industry

Figure 2. Aedes aegypti (left) and Aedes albopictus (right). Credits: Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory.
Zika is a mosquito-transmitted virus that has recently spread to the Americas. Zika virus (ZIKV) was discovered in 1946 in Africa where it was isolated from a Rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. In 2007, a disease outbreak occurred on the Yap islands in Micronesia, and in 2013, an outbreak occurred in French Polynesia. In 2015, a large outbreak occurred in Brazil, and ZIKV has since spread through the Americas. As of April 18, 2016, 15 counties in the state of Florida had reported travel-associated Zika cases. This seven-page fact sheet provides an overview of ZIKV, including its incidence and distribution, transmission and symptoms, and the connection between zika virus and infant microcephaly. This article also explains the biology and identification of the mosquito that vectors the virus with a focus on how to manage the vector using inspection, larviciding, adulticiding, monitoring, and personal protective equipment. Written by Casey Parker, Roxanne Connelly, Dale Dubberly, Roberto Pereira, and Philip Koehler and published by the Entomology and Nematology Department.

Muestreo por Golpeo para el Psilido Asiatico de los Citricos (PAC). Hoja de campo

This field sheet provides information on Tap sampling for Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP). Monitoring ACP populations is an important tool in the integrated management of citrus greening. The most efficient way to estimate field populations of this insect is by monitoring adults. Tap sampling has proven to provide data needed to make informed decisions for managing this insect pest. This two-page field sheet is the Spanish version of IN1116 TAP Sampling for Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) Field Sheet. Written by Phil Stansly, and published by the Entomology and Nematology Department.

Spiderwort Control in Hay Fields and Pastures

Spiderwort can be easily identified by its clusters of colorful flowers with three petals.
Spiderwort is a native perennial species found throughout the eastern half of the US. The plant’s large, fleshy stem creates problems for hay production. This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief overview of the plant as well as information on control through herbicide use. Written by Michael Durham, Jason Ferrell, and Brent Sellers, and published by the UF Agronomy Department, May 2016.

Pest Identification Guide: Chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood

chilli thrips
Chilli thrips transmits the ilarvirus Tobacco streak virus (TSV) and the tospoviruses Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV), Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus (GCSFV), and Groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV). This species primarily feeds on young, tender foliage. Feeding on foliage may result in silvering leading to necrosis, leaf curl (upward), distortion, and defoliation. Feeding on the fruit may cause scarring, discoloration, and the formation of corky texture on the fruit. Learn to identify the chilli thrips with this two-page illustrated guide written by Jeffrey D. Cluever and Hugh A. Smith and published by the Department of Entomology and Nematology.

Metsulfuron-Methyl-Containing Herbicides Potentially Damaging Ornamentals when Applied to Turfgrass

Figure 1. Phloem necrosis shown as streaking brown sections of wood exposed by peeling the bark back in a live oak (Quercus virginiana) branch affected by metsulfuron-methyl. Credits: Jason Smith, UF/IFAS
Metsulfuron-methyl, also known as MSM, is an herbicide that is used to control broadleaf weeds and certain grass weeds. It provides effective control of some of the most problematic turfgrass weeds, such as wild garlic, Florida betony, dollar weed, and small Virginia buttonweed. Metsulfuron-methyl is absorbed by plant foliage, so if landscape plants come into contact with the spray or drift they can be injured. This four-page fact sheet describes the potential problems with metsulfuron herbicides, the areas most subsceptible to damage, how to diagnose injury, and how to reduce damage. Written by Chris Marble, Jason Smith, Timothy K. Broschat, Adam Black, Ed Gilman, and Celeste White and published by the School of Forest Resources and Conservation Department.

Pond Apple: A Tree Species Adapted to Salt Stresses

Figure 1. Pond apple seedlings. Credits: Guodong Liu, UF/IFAS
Soil salinity is a naturally ocurring problem for growers, gardeners, and homeowners in Florida. As sea-levels rise, seawater intrusion causes salt stress to plants grown in coastal lowland areas. This three-page fact sheet introduces a salt-tolerant species, pond apple (Annona glabra L.), which has great potential to be used in high-salinity coastal landscapes. Written by Guodong Liu, Yuncong Li, Kimberly Moore, and Kim Gabel and published by the Horticultural Sciences Department.

Temporary Food Plot Deterrents for Deer: Do They Work?

Figure 1. Small cool-season food plot planted in north Florida.
Many Floridians enjoy the opportunity to hunt, watch, or photograph white-tailed deer. Hunters and landowners often plant cool season forage plots both to attract wildlife and to provide a dependable food source. But where there is a high deer population or scarce food resources, deer may forage on food plots as soon as the plants emerge and before they become established. This fact sheet presents the results of research conducted at the UF/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center in Quincy into the effectiveness of various strategies hunters and landowners can use to temporarily limit access to new food plots until the plants are well established and strong enough to attract and sustain hungry deer through the winter. Written by Holly Ober, Cheryl Mackowiak, and Ann Blount and published by the UF/IFAS Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation.

Understanding Ag Awareness Programming throughout UF/IFAS Extension: Supporting Citizen Awareness of Food Systems and the Environment

Drs. Clyde Fraisse (blue shirt) and Natalia Peres (orange shirt) speak with graduate students amongst rows of strawberries at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Balm, Florida. Strawberry, fruit, agriculture, food production. UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones.
Florida Extension agents around the state are working to increase public agricultural awareness (Ag Awareness). This five-page fact sheet outlines FLorida’s recent Extension efforts in agricultural awareness and highlight future directions to coordinate and strengthen this work, offering ideas for best practices while avoiding unnecessary duplication. Written by Joy N. Rumble, Kathryn A. Stofer, and Libbie Johnson and published by the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication.

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